Home Heat Pump System Components: Suction Accumulators

In order to troubleshoot a heat pump system’s components, you must first understand them. Since much of North America has transitioned into the heating season, it’s perfect timing to review a component commonly found in residential heat pump systems: the suction accumulator.

What is a suction accumulator?

Suction accumulators play a critical role when it comes to air-to-air and air-to-water heat pump applications.

What is its role?

The system design must maintain a delicate balance and proper control of liquid refrigerant under low ambient heating conditions to adequately provide cooling to the compressor, and avoid excessive refrigerant floodback. If liquid refrigerant is allowed to flood through the system and return to the compressor without being evaporated, it may cause damage to the compressor. Depending on the type of compressor, this damage could range from liquid slugging, loss of oil (in the compressor), or bearing washout.

To protect against floodbacks on systems vulnerable to liquid refrigerant damage such as heat pumps, the accumulator’s function is to intercept the liquid refrigerant before it can reach the compressor. When a coil defrost is required, the compressor is exposed to sudden surges of liquid that can create extreme stresses in the system. The accumulator can act as a receiver during the heating and defrost cycles when system imbalance or an overcharge from field service could result in excessive liquid refrigerant in the system.

The accumulator can store the refrigerant until needed and feed it back to the compressor at an acceptable rate. Major movements of refrigerant take place at the initiation and termination of a defrost cycle, and while it is not necessary or even desirable to stop this movement, it is essential that the rate at which the liquid refrigerant is fed back to the compressor be controlled. Along with this proper metering, the accumulator can effectively maintain the crankcase or bottom shell temperature at acceptable limits. A properly designed suction accumulator can provided excellent protection against both potential hazards.

What type/size accumulator should be used?

This component should be located in the compressor suction line between the evaporator and the compressor. It needs to have a volume/capacity large enough to hold the maximum amount of liquid that might return to it, and must have provisions for a positive return of oil to the compressor.

The actual refrigerant holding capacity needed for a given accumulator is governed by the requirements of the particular application, and the accumulator should be selected to hold the maximum liquid floodback anticipated. Typical accumulators manufactured for air conditioning or commercial usage have oil return orifices in size from .0625 to .125 inch diameter. The smaller orifice undoubtedly is more vulnerable to restriction from solder particles or other foreign material in the system, and an inlet screen would be advisable, particularly on systems with field-installed piping. Care should also be taken to prevent solder and flux from entering the accumulator, since excessive foreign material could plug the metering orifice, effectively trapping the compressor oil in the accumulator.

Suction AccumulatorNote the refrigerant inlet is offset from the top of the J tube. As the refrigerant and oil enter the vessel, velocity separation takes place and the refrigerant expands due to the ambient temperature providing a heat source. At this point, the oil entering, (along with any liquid refrigerant) separates from the vapor refrigerant and falls to the bottom. The vapor refrigerant moves through the “J” tube as the compressor causes a pressure difference on between the inlet and outlet of the accumulator. As the refrigerant travel through the “J” tube, this causes a Venturi effect to take place across the orifice, drawing in oil from the bottom of the vessel. The vapor refrigerant carries the oil back to the compressor at a controlled rate.

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6 thoughts on “Home Heat Pump System Components: Suction Accumulators

    • Hi Leslie,

      Due to the outdoor ambient air in Winter being potentially below 32F, heatpump systems have a defrost cycle, A/C systems do not. Major movements of refrigerant take place at the initiation and termination of a defrost cycle, and while it is not necessary or even desirable to stop this movement, it is essential that the rate at which the liquid refrigerant is fed back to the compressor be controlled, to prevent damage to the compressor.

      Thanks,
      Scott

  1. hello,
    this is ujjwal singh from center for energy and environment research facility,india
    i have developed an instrument which can tell total amount of refrigerant(component wise) in terms of kg and fraction using sat/super heat temperatures.
    but i am not able to predict the amount gathering in accumulator.
    i need to design a new accumulator with glass tube level indicator.
    how can i calculate size of accumulator?

    • Hi Singh,

      Selection and sizing of a suction line accumulator is dependent upon whether it is intended as a field replacement or for a new application. The most common reason for field replacement of an accumulator is corrosive rust through. Since an accumulator is colder than atmosphere, it is subject to constant condensation and therefore corrosion.

      When replacing a suction line accumulator in the field, it is important that the selection is sized as closely to the one being removed as possible. Accumulators are sized by the OEM design engineer for their specific application. There is considerable testing and trial and error that goes into selecting the size and orifice for OEM systems. For field replacement, size the unit to match the exact diameter and similar length of the unit currently installed.

      OEM selection of the accumulator is based upon system testing and generally some selection criteria. The accumulator manufacturer provides capacity tables listing the holding capacity and flow capacity for each accumulator. The accumulator holding capacity should be sized to hold 50% or more of the total system charge. The accumulator maximum flow capacity in tons should not exceed a pressure drop equivalent to 1°F for the refrigerant. The minimum flow capacity in tons must be no less than 15% of the stated capacity in order to ensure a positive oil return. Refer to the suction line accumulator manufacturer’s literature and capacity tables for additional technical information.

      Thanks,
      Scott

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